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Kienzle L, Bettinazzi S, Brunet M, Choquette T, Khorami HH, Roucou X, Landry CR, Angers A, Breton S (2023). A small protein coded within the mitochondrial canonical gene nd4 regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics. BMC Biology 21, 1-18.

Biot-Pelletier D, Bettinazzi S, Gagnon-Arsenault I, Dube AK, Bédard C, HM Nguyen THM, Fiumera H, Breton S, Landry C (2023). Evolutionary trajectories are contingent on mitonuclear interactions. Molecular Biology and Evolution 40, msad061.

Mélançon V, Breton S, Bettinazzi S, Levet M, Binning SA (2023) Mitochondrial metabolism and body condition of naturally infected sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Smith CH, Mejia-Trujillo R, Breton S, Pinto BJ, Kirkpatrick M, Havird JC (2023) Mitonuclear sex determination? Empirical evidence from bivalves. Molecular Biology and Evolution 40, msad240.

Le Cam S, Brémaud J, Malkocs T, Kreckelbergh E, Becquet V, Dubillot E, Garcia P, Breton S, Pante E (2023) LAMP‐based molecular sexing in a gonochoric marine bivalve (Macoma balthica rubra) with divergent sex‐specific mitochondrial genomes. Ecology and Evolution 13, e10320.

Debelli A, Kienzle L, Khorami HH, Angers A, Breton S (2023) Validation of the male-specific ORF of the paternally-transmitted mtDNA in Mytilus edulis as a protein-coding gene. Gene, 147586.


Tassé M, Choquette T, Angers A, Stewart DT, Pante E, Breton S (2022) The longest mitochondrial protein in metazoans is encoded by the male-transmitted mitogenome of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Biology Letters 18, 20220122.

Breton S, Stewart DT, Brémaud J, Havird JC, Smith CH, Hoeh WR (2022) Did doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mtDNA originate as a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system? BioEssays 2100283.

Dalpé A, Lalonde-Larue A, Choquette T, Cimmino J, Leroux E, Leung C, Stewart DT, Bernard Angers B, Breton S (2022) The influence of environmental conditions on sex determination in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. ICES Journal of Marine Science.

Xu R, Martelossi J, Smits M, Iannello M, Peruzza L, Babbucci M, Milan M, Dunham JP, Breton S, Milani L, Nuzhdin SV, Bargelloni L, Passamonti M, Ghiselli F (2022) Multi-tissue RNA-Seq analysis and long-read-based genome assembly reveal complex sex-specific gene regulation and molecular evolution in the Manila clam. Genome Biology and Evolution 14:evac171.


Bettinazzi S, Milani L, Blier PU, Breton S (2021) Bioenergetic consequences of sex-specific mitochondrial DNA evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 288:20211585.

Niaison T, Guerra D, Breton S (2021) The complete mitogenome of the inarticulate brachiopod Glottidia pyramidata reveals insights into gene order variation, deviant ATP8 and mtORFans in the Brachiopoda. Mitochondrial DNA part B 6:2701-2703.

Hraoui G, Breton S, Miron G, Boudreau LH, Hunter-Manseau F, Pichaud N (2021) Mitochondrial responses towards recurring heat shock in the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Journal of Experimental Biology 224:jeb242745.

Stewart DT, Robicheau BM, Youssef N, Garrido-Ramos MA, Chase EE, Breton S (2021) Expanding the search for Sperm Transmission Elements in the mitochondrial genomes of bivalve mollusks. Genes 12:1211.

Breton S (2021) Mitochondrial Russian doll genes may explain some discrepancies in links between mtDNA mutations and mitochondrial diseases. BioEssays 43:2100104.

Breton S, Milani L, Ghiselli F (2021) Mitochondrial short-term plastic responses and long-term evolutionary dynamics in animal species. Genome Biology and Evolution 13:evab084.

Gomes-dos-Santos A, Lopes-Lima M, Macahdo AM, Marcos Ramos A, Usie A, Bolotov IN, Vikhrev IV, Breton S, Castro LFC, Fonseca RR, Geist J, Osterling ME, Prie V, Teixeira A, Ming Gan H, Simakov O, Froufe E (2021) The crown pearl: a draft genome assembly of the European freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758). DNA Research 28:dsa002.

Leroux E, Brosseau C, Angers B, Angers A, Breton S (2021) Méthylation de l’ADN mitochondrial – controverses, enjeux et perspectives. Médecine Sciences 37:258-264.

Stewart DT, Stephenson CM, Stanton LM, Chase EE, Robicheau BM, Hoeh RW, Breton S (2021) Using Molecular Signatures in Mitochondrial DNA to Search for Hermaphroditism in Freshwater Mussels: A Case Study Using Pyganodon cataracta (Family Unionidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 99:450-458.

Iannello M, Asgharian H, Bettinazzi S, Breton S, Ghiselli F, Milani L (2021) Within- and between-individual mtDNA heterogeneity in a naturally heteroplasmic species. Genome Biology and Evolution 13:evab022.


Pichaud N, Ekström A, Breton S, Sundström F, Rowinski P, Blier PU, Sanblom E (2020) Adjustments of cardiac mitochondrial phenotype in a warmer thermal habitat is associated with oxidative stress in European perch, Perca fluviatilis. Scientific Reports 10:1-12.

Chapdelaine V, Bettinazzi S, Breton S, Angers B (2020) Combined influence of mitonuclear genotypes, acclimation and temperature on the energetic phenotype of a cybrid complex. Journal of Experimental Zoology 333:264-270.

Capt C, Bouvet K, Guerra D, Robicheau BM, Stewart DT, Pante E, Breton S (2020) Unorthodox features in two venerid bivalves with doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria. Scientific Reports 10:1-13.

Hraoui G, Bettinazzi S, Gendron AD, Boisclair D, Breton S (2020) Mitochondrial thermo-sensitivity in invasive and native freshwater mussels. Journal of Experimental Biology #JEXBIO/2019/215921.

Ouimet P, Kienzle L, Lubosny M, Burzynski A, Angers A, Breton S (2020) The ORF in the control region of the female-transmitted Mytilus mtDNA codes for a protein. GENE 725.

Bettinazzi S, Nadarajah S, Dalpé A, Milani L, Blier PU, Breton S (2020) Linking paternally-inherited mtDNA variants and sperm performance. Philosophical Transactions B 375:20190177.

Froufe E, Bolotov I, Aldridge DC, Bogan AE, Breton S, et al (2020) Mesozoic mitogenome rearrangements support pulsed macroevolution scenario in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Heredity 124:182-196.

Gnaiger E, et Al, Mitoeagle Task Group (2020). Mitochondrial physiology.

Bioenergetics Communications, (BEC2020.1), 44p. Publisher's official version :

Stewart DT, Breton S, Chase EE, Robicheau BM, Bettinazzi S, Pante E, Youssef N, Garrido-Ramos MA (2020). An unusual evolutionary strategy: the origins, genetic repertoire, and implications of doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in bivalves. In Pontarotti P, editor. Evolutionary Biology from Concept to Application. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.


Guerra D, Lopes-Lima M, Froufe E, Ming Gan H, Paz O, Amaro R, Klunzinger MW, Callil C, Prié V, Bogan AE, Stewart DT, Breton S (2019) Variability of mitochondrial ORFans hints at possible differences in the system of doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria among families of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida). BMC Evolutionary Biology 19:1-22.

Pichaud N, Ekström A, Breton S, Sundström F, Rowinski P, Blier PU, Sanblom E (2019) Cardiac mitochondrial plasticity and thermal sensitivity in a fish inhabiting an artificially heated ecosystem. Scientific Reports 9.

Capt C, Renaut S, Stewart DT, Johnson NA, Breton S (2019) Putative mitochondrial sex determination in the Bivalvia: insights from a hybrid transcriptome assembly in freshwater mussels. Frontiers in Genetics 10:840.

Bettinazzi S, Gendron AD, Breton S (2019) The effect of cryopreservation on mitochondrial function in freshwater mussel tissue samples (Bivalvia: Unionida). Cryobiology 88:106-109.

Bettinazzi S, Rodriguez E, Milani L, Blier PU, Breton S (2019) Metabolic remodelling associated with mtDNA: Insights into the adaptive value of doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286:28182708.

Gomes-dos-Santos A, Froufe E, Amaro R, Paz O, Breton S, et al (2019) The male and female complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the threatened freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae). Mitochondrial DNA part B 4:1417-1420.

Angers A, Ouimet P, Tsyvian-Dzyabko A, Nock T, Breton S (2019) L’ADN mitochondrial – un potentiel codant mésestimé. Médecine Sciences 35:46-54.

Chase EE, Robicheau BM, Hoeh WR, Harris J, Stewart DT, Breton S (2019) The complete male-type mitochondrial genomes of the Fatmucket Lampsilis siliquoidea and the endangered Arkansas Fatmucket Lampsilis powelli. Mitochondrial DNA part B 4:107-109.


Leung C, Breton S, Angers B (2018) A trait-based ecology to assess the acclimation of a sperm-dependent clonal fish compared to its sexual host. PeerJ 6:e5896.

Renaut S, Guerra D, Hoeh WR, Stewart DT, Bogan AE, Ghiselli F, Milani L, Passamonti M, Breton S (2018) Hybrid de novo assembly of the draft genome of the freshwater mussel Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (Bivalvia: Unionida). Genome Biology and Evolution 10:1637-1646.

Robicheau BM, Chase EE, Hoeh WR, Harris J, Stewart DT, Breton S (2018) Evaluating the utility of the female-specific mitochondrial f-orf gene for population genetic, phylogeographic and systematic studies in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida). PeerJ 6:e5007.

Chase EE, Robicheau BM, Veinot S, Bauer G, Breton S, Stewart DT (2018) The complete mitochondrial genome of the hermaphroditic freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea (Bivalvia: Unionidae): in silico analyses of H-ORFs in freshwater mussel species. BMC Genomics 19:221.

Lubośny M, Przyłucka A, Śmietanka B, Breton S, Burzyński A (2018) Actively transcribed and expressed atp8 gene in Mytilus edulis mussels. PeerJ 6:e4897.

Ghiselli F, Breton S, Milani L (2018) Mitochondrial activity in gametes and uniparental inheritance - a comment on 'What can we infer about the origin of sex in early eukaryotes? Philosophical Transactions B 373(1741).

Capt C, Renaut S, Ghiselli F, Milani L, Johnson N, Sietman B, Stewart DT, Breton S (2018) Deciphering the link between doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA and sex determination in bivalves: clues from comparative transcriptomics. Genome Biology and Evolution 10:577-590.

Stewart DT, Sinclair-Waters M, Rice A, Bunker RY, Robicheau BM, Breton S (2018) Distribution and frequency of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) populations of southwestern Nova Scotia (Canada). Canadian Journal of Zoology 96:608-613.

Guerra D, Bouvet K, Breton S (2018) Mitochondrial gene order evolution in Mollusca: inference of the ancestral state from the mtDNA of Chaetopleura apiculata (Polyplacophora, Chaetopleuridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 120:233-239.


Breton S, Bouvet K, Auclair G, Ghazal S, Sietman BE, Johnson N, Bettinazzi S, Stewart DT, Guerra D (2017) The extremely divergent maternally- and paternally-transmitted mitochondrial genomes are co-expressed in somatic tissues of two freshwater mussel species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. PLoS ONE 12:e0183529.

Guerra D, Plazzi F, Stewart DT, Bogan AE, Hoeh WR, Breton S (2017) Evolution of sex-dependent mtDNA transmission in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida). Scientific Reports 7:1551.

Robicheau BM, Breton S, Stewart DT (2017) Sequence motifs associated with paternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA in the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). GENE 605:32-42.

Robicheau BM, Powell AE, Del Bel L, Breton S, Stewart DT (2017) Evidence for extreme sequence divergence between the male- and female-transmitted mitochondrial genomes in the bivalve mollusk, Modiolus modiolus (Mytilidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 55:89-97.

Gusman A, Azuelos C, Breton S (2017) No evidence of sex-linked heteroplasmy and doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA in five gastropod species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 83: 119-122.

2016 & earlier

Gusman A, Lecomte S, Stewart DT, Passamonti M, Breton S (2016) Pursuing the quest for better understanding the taxonomic distribution of the system of doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. PeerJ. 4:e2760.

Mitchell A, Guerra D, Stewart DT, Breton S (2016) In silico analyses of mitochondrial ORFans in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) provide framework for future studies of their origin and function. BMC Genomics 17:597.

Leung C, Breton S, Angers B (2016) Facing Environmental Predictability with Different Sources of Epigenetic Variation. Ecology and Evolution 6:5234-5245.

Guerra D, Ghiselli F, Minali L, Breton S, Passamonti M (2016) Early replication dynamics of sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs in the doubly uniparental inheritance species Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae). Heredity 116:324-32.

Minoiu I, Burzynski A, Breton S (2016) Analysis of the coding potential of the ORF in the control region of the female-transmitted Mytilus mtDNA. Gene 576:586-588.

Capt C, Passamonti M, Breton S (2016) The human mitochondrial genome may code for more than 13 proteins. Mitochondrial DNA 27:3098-3101.

Breton S, Stewart DT (2015) Atypical mitochondrial inheritance patterns in eukaryotes. Genome 58:423-31.

Breton S, Milani L, Ghiselli F, Guerra D, Stewart D, Passamonti M (2014) A resourceful genome: updating the functional repertoire and evolutionary role of animal mitochondrial DNAs. Trends in Genetics 30:555-564.

Ghiselli F, Milani L, Guerra D, Chang PL, Breton S, Nuzhdin S, Passamonti M (2013) Structure, transcription and variability of metazoan mitochondrial genome. Perspectives from an unusual mitochondrial inheritance system. Genome Biology and Evolution 5:1535-1554.

Milani L, Ghiselli F, Guerra D, Breton S, Passamonti M (2013) A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial ORFans: New Clues on Their Origin and Role in Species with Doubly Uniparental Inheritance of Mitochondria. Genome Biology and Evolution 5:1408-1434.

Yusa Y, Breton S, Hoeh WR (2013) Population genetics of sex determination in Mytilus mussels: re-analyses and a model. Journal of Heredity 104:380-385.

Stewart DT, Hoeh WR, Bauer G, Breton S (2013) Mitochondrial genes, sex determination and hermaphroditism in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida). In Pontarotti P, editor. Evolutionary Biology from Concept to Application. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Shepardson S, Heard WH, Breton S, Hoeh WR (2012) Light and transmission electron microscopy of two spermatogenic pathways and unimorphic sperm in Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (Conrad, 1836) (Bivalvia: Unionoida). Malacologia 55:263-284.

Stewart DT, Jha M, Breton S, Hoeh WR, Blier PU (2012) No effect of sperm interactions or egg homogenate on sperm velocity in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 90:1291-1296.

Moreira S, Breton S, Burger G (2012) Unscrambling genetic information at the RNA level. WIREs RNA 3:213-228.

Breton S, Ghiselli F, Passamonti M, Milani L, Stewart DT, Hoeh WR (2011) Evidence for a fourteenth mtDNA-encoded protein in the female-transmitted mtDNA of marine mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). PLoS ONE 6:19365.

Breton S, Stewart DT, Shepardson S, Trdan RJ, Bogan AE, Chapman EG, Ruminas AJ, Piontkivska H, Hoeh WR (2011) Novel protein genes in animal mtDNA: a new sex determination system in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida)? Molecular Biology and Evolution 28:1645-1659.

Breton S, Stewart DT, Hoeh WR (2010) Characterization of a mitochondrial ORF from the gender-associated mtDNAs of Mytilus spp. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae): identification of the « missing » ATPase 8 gene. Marine Genomics 3: 11-18.

Doucet Beaupré H, Breton S, Chapman EG, Blier PU, Bogan AE, Stewart DT, Hoeh WR (2010) Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of the Bivalvia (Mollusca): Searching for the Origin and Mitogenomic Correlates of Doubly Uniparental Inheritance of mtDNA. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:50.

Doucet Beaupré H, Dubé C, Breton S, Portner HO, Blier PU (2010) Thermal sensitivity of metabolism in subarctic and temperate freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Uniononida). Journal of Thermal Biology 35:11-20.

Breton S, Doucet Beaupré H, Stewart DT, Piontkivska H, Karmakar M, Bogan AE, Blier PU, Hoeh WR (2009) Comparative mitochondrial genomics of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) with Doubly Uniparental Inheritance of mtDNA: gender-specific Open Reading Frames (ORFs) and putative origins of replication. Genetics 183:1575-1589.

Breton S, Stewart DT, Blier PU (2009) Role-reversal of gender-associated mitochondrial DNA affects mitochondrial function in Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology B 312:108-117.

Stewart DT, Breton S, Blier PU, Hoeh WR (2009) Masculinization events and doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondrial DNA: A model for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of gender-asssociated mtDNA in mussels. In Pontarotti P, editor. Evolutionary Biology from Concept to Application II. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Hébert Chatelain E, Breton S, Lemieux H, Blier PU (2008) Epitoky in Nereis (Neanthes) virens (Polychaeta : Nereididae): a story about sex and death. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 149:202-208.

Breton S, Doucet Beaupré H (2008) Un système de transmission de l’ADN mitochondrial sexuellement équitable. Médecine Sciences 23: 138-140.

Breton S, Doucet Beaupré H, Stewart DT, Hoeh WR, Blier PU (2007) The unusual system of doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA: isn’t one enough? Trends in Genetics 23:465-474.

Breton S, Burger G, Stewart DT, Blier PU (2006) Comparative analysis of gender-associated, complete mitochondrial genomes in marine mussels (Mytilus spp.). Genetics 172: 107-1119.

Blier PU, Breton S, Desrosiers V, Lemieux H (2006) Functional conservatism in mitochondrial evolution: insight from hybridization of arctic and brook charr. Journal of Experimental Zoology B 306:425-432.

Breton S, Dufresne F, Desrosiers G, Blier PU (2004) Morphological variation in Nereis (Neanthes) virens (Polychaeta: Nereididae) populations. Journal of the Marine Biological Association UK 84: 983-985.

Breton S, Dufresne F, Desrosiers G, Blier PU (2003) Population structure of two northern hemisphere polychaetes, Neanthes virens and Hediste diversicolor (Nereididae), with different life-history traits. Marine Biology 142:707-715.

Publications: Publications
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